The Leopard C2 MEXAS MBT is a Canadian upgrade of the German Leopard 1A3 Main Battle Tank (MBT), bought in the late 1970s. Locally designated as the Leopard C1, the Canadian Leopards achieved excellent results during NATO exercises and contests. In 2000 most C1 tanks were upgraded to the C2 standard to extend their lives in service.
The main upgrade was to fit the leopard 1A5 turrets on the original leopard C1 chassis. Other improvements included the installation of a thermal imagery sight and the EMES 18 fire control system. The leopard C1 tanks were deployed in the Balkans along side Kosovo Force (KFOR) led by NATO forces in 1999. Consequently, Canadian Leopard C2s were then fitted with the German Modular Expendable Armor System (MEXAS) heavy add-on composite armor. In 2006, upgraded Leopard C2 MEXAS tanks equipped with the MEXAS armor system joined the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan.